Massacre of Glencoe, (February 13, 1692), in Scottish history, the treacherous slaughter of members of the MacDonald clan of Glencoe by soldiers under Archibald Campbell, 10th earl of Argyll. By The Newsroom. William Croft Dickinson references Glencoe in his 1963 short story "The Return of the Native". By 1700 his reputation had been rehabilitated. The action was sanctioned and implemented by the Crown, with approval by Lowland elites, and it intensified the already bitter Highland-Lowland divisions. Expecting you will not faill in the full-filling hereof, as you love your selfe, I subscribe these with my hand  att Balicholis  Feb: 12, 1692. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLenman1995 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFLenman1991 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSomers1843 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPreeble1968 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMacaulay1859 (, "Site Record for Glencoe, Massacre Of Glencoe Memorial; Macdonald's Monument; Glencoe Massacre", "Game of Thrones author George R R Martin why he wrote the red wedding", "An Account of the depredations committed on the Clan Campbell and their followers during the years 1685 and 1686", "Managing the Early Modern Periphery: Highland Policy and the Highland Judicial Commission, c. 1692–c. Tattie Scones. This correlates with evidence from James Campbell, one of Glenlyon's company, stating they had no knowledge of the plan until the morning of 13 February. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. On 1 st February 1692, ten days before the massacre, they were ordered to march into Glencoe and await further instructions. Why the Glencoe MacDonalds were selected is still debated; it appears to have been a combination of internal clan politics, and a reputation for lawlessness that made them an easy target. Two days later, secret articles appeared, cancelling the agreement in the event of a Jacobite invasion and signed by all the attendees, including Breadalbane, who claimed they had been manufactured by Glengarry, the MacDonald chief. You are to have a special care that the old Fox and his sons do upon no account escape your hands, you are to secure all the avenues that no man escape.” Glencoe Massacre Memorial Inscription (Photo credit: Kim Traynor) The massacre began at 5am the next morning. [10] His approval was sent on 12 December, and received by Glengarry on the 23rd, who did not share it until the 28th. While the Maclain of Glencoe was promised safety, Dalrymple saw an opportunity to make an example of the King’s strength. Who ordered the Glencoe Massacre - and why? The Highland Jacobites sought counsel from France and a form of peace briefly settled as clansmen waited a response. It marked the beginning of the end of the clan system and the old, free Highland way of life. Muster rolls also show that Campbells made up a minority the government-backed troops dispatched to Glencoe. Scotland's History Union and Jacobites The Glencoe Massacre The Glencoe Massacre – 1692 The Adobe Flash player and Javascript are required in order to view a video which appears on this page. Fugitives were helped at Castle Stalker, a safe place for Clan Campbell, according to tradition. Two rival dynasties vied for the throne in far off London; but the fighting, the repercussions and the bloodshed would be felt most in the heart of the Scottish Highlands. [20], Highland regiments were formed by first appointing Captains, each responsible for recruiting sixty men from his own estates. But the multiple deaths - a further 40 perished in the snow after their homes were set on fire - were the result of far more than the inter-clan warfare of the Campbells and the MacDonalds. The order to slaughter the MacDonalds came from London at the urging of the Secretary of State for Scotland, John Dalrymple. In 1691 all Highland Clan Chiefs were required to swear and sign an oath of loyalty to the new, protestant King William III by no later than 1 January 1692. You are to have a special care that the old Fox and his sons do upon no account escape your hands, you are to secure all the avenues that no man escape. As per John Prebble's account 'Glencoe; the Story of the Massacre,' this was John MacDonald, who served in the Jacobite force under Thomas Buchan scattered at Cromdale in May 1690. “It’s a great work of charity to be exact in rooting out the damnable sept, the worst in all the Highlands.”. The Massacre of Glencoe came against the backdrop of civil war in the British Isles. [45], Its continuing emotional power was demonstrated in 1998, when a plaque was installed at a granite boulder south of Carnach. The handwritten order for the Glencoe massacre goes on display at a National Library of Scotland exhibition in Edinburgh. Glencoe was a popular topic with 19th-century poets, the best-known work being Sir Walter Scott's "Massacre of Glencoe". On February 13, 1692, thirty-eight members of the Macdonald clan were massacred by troops at the behest of the Lord … This differs from their testimony to the Commission and is unlikely, since they arrived hours after the killings, which were carried out at the opposite end of the glen. [17], In the debate that followed, Colonel Hill claimed most Highlanders were peaceful, and even in Lochaber, a single person may travell safley where he will witout harme. This you are to putt in execution att fyve of the clock precisely; and by that time, or very shortly after it, I’ll strive to be att you with a stronger party: if I doe not come to you att fyve, you are not to tarry for me, but to fall on. King James VII of Scotland and II of England was a poor king by any standard: hot-headed, naïve, politically callous and worst of all for many, an adherent to the … This suggests the Episcopalian Glencoe MacDonalds only replaced the Catholic Glengarry as the target on 11 January; MacIain's son John MacDonald told the 1695 Commission the soldiers came to Glencoe from the north '...Glengarry's house being reduced.'[16]. The infamy of the massacre of Glencoe is not so much in the numbers killed, but in the way it was carried out. The Keppoch MacDonalds were outlawed first in 1688 for attacking government troops, then again in 1689 for supporting the Jacobites. 'You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and to put all to the sword under seventy.' He missed the deadline by six days. He added in to the letter he had been writing at the time: “Just now, my Lord Argyll tells me that Glencoe hath not taken the oaths, at which I rejoice. Hello, Sign in. This is by the Kings speciall command, for the good & safety of the Country, that these miscreants be cutt off root and branch. [2], Levies from all four served in the Independent Companies used to suppress the Conventicles in 1678–80, and took part in the devastating Atholl raid that followed Argyll's Rising in 1685. But with the National Trust for Scotland, which today owns much of the glen, preparing to launch a new, £300,000 archaeological investigation into its history, now is an opportune moment to reconsider the events of 1692. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Maclain of Glencoe delayed signing the oath and when he arrived in Fort William he found he had to go to … The order was then passed on to Sir Thomas Livingstone, commander of the forces in Scotland. This was the treacherous and cold-blooded order ruthlessly carried out on 13 February 1692, when the Campbells slaughtered their hosts the MacDonalds at the Massacre of Glencoe. The order to slaughter the MacDonalds came from London at the urging of the Secretary of State for Scotland, John Dalrymple. [17] Glengarry was pardoned and his lands returned, while maintaining his reputation at the Jacobite court by being the last to swear and ensuring Cannon and Buchan received safe conduct to France in March 1692. The massacre . You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebells, the McDonalds of Glenco, and put all to the sword under seventy. The Massacre was ordered by Sir John Dalrymple, Secretary of State of Scotland, as punishment for the MacDonald’s chief, MacIain, not swearing the oath of loyalty to the new king, William of Orange, before the deadline of 31st December 1691. This was the treacherous and cold-blooded order ruthlessly carried out on 13 February 1692, when the Campbells slaughtered their hosts the MacDonalds at the Massacre of Glencoe. [9], In early October, the chiefs asked James for permission to take the Oath unless he could mount an invasion before the deadline, a condition they knew to be impossible. [19] The Glencoe MacDonalds themselves were similarly billeted on the Campbells when serving with the Highland levies used to police Argyll in 1678. The Campbell’s have long been vilified for their role in the massacre. They’re sometimes called potato scones, and you may also hear them called fadge or potato bread in Ireland. Four clans from this area were named as particularly responsible; the Glencoe and Keppoch MacDonalds, the MacGregors and the Camerons. Despite victory at the Battle of Killiecrankie on 27 July, Dundee was killed along with 600 Highlanders; the survivors spent the winter in Lochaber, before organised Jacobite resistance ended with defeat at Cromdale in May 1690. [12] Glengarry did not swear until 4 February, with others doing so by proxy, but only MacIain was excluded from the indemnity issued by the Scottish Privy Council. The attack had been planned at the very highest level of the state. The handwritten order for the Massacre of Glencoe is the centrepiece of a National Library of Scotland exhibition. It is unlikely that Glenlyon knew at this point what he would be ordered to do next. He is known as the 'Curse of Scotland' for his role in the Glencoe Massacre, the government minister whose exploits went largely unpunished following the infamous murders which took place 325 years ago this week. Leave the McLeans to Argyll...[14] In January, he wrote three letters in quick succession to Sir Thomas Livingstone, military commander in Scotland; on 7th, the intention was to ....destroy entirely the country of Lochaber, Locheal's lands, Kippochs, Glengarrie and Glenco...; on 9th ...their chieftains all being papists, it is well the vengeance falls there; for my part, I regret the MacDonalds had not divided and...Kippoch and Glenco are safe. [a] Campbell carried orders for 'free quarter', an established alternative to paying taxes in what was a largely non-cash society. The last on 11 January states; ...my lord Argile tells me Glenco hath not taken the oaths at which I rejoice....[15], Parliament passed a Decree of Forfeiture in 1690, depriving Glengarry of his lands, but he continued to hold Invergarry Castle, whose garrison included the senior Jacobite officers Alexander Cannon and Thomas Buchan. At this time the MacDonalds of Glencoe, a minor branch of the mighty clan, were headed by Alasdair who set off on December 30th 1691 to swear allegiance. In March 1690, the Secretary of State, Lord Stair, offered a total of £12,000 for swearing allegiance to William. This document contains the order for one of the most infamous acts in Scotland's history — the massacre in Glencoe. After two years of negotiations, Stair was under pressure to ensure the deal stuck, while Argyll was competing for political influence with his kinsman Breadalbane, who also found it expedient to concur with the plan. The massacre of the Glencoe MacDonalds by government troops in 1692 took place during a blizzard in the depths of winter. A Song of Ice and Fire author, George R. R. Martin, cites the Glencoe Massacre as one of two historical influences on the infamous "Red Wedding" in his 2000 book A Storm of Swords. The massacre of Glencoe Nevertheless in one case the submission came too late. Whoever was pulling the strings, Dalrymple had found his target - and could barely contain his delight. [44] It is still commemorated in an annual ceremony by the Clan Donald Society; initiated in 1930, this is held at the Upper Carnoch memorial, a tapering Celtic cross installed in 1883 at the eastern end of Glencoe village. 1692 - Order for the Massacre of Glencoe This is the original order sent to Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, instructing him to kill the MacDonalds of Glencoe. Other historians have disregarded this. His role in the Glencoe Massacre helped forge the bitter association. This was the treacherous and cold-blooded order ruthlessly carried out on 13 February 1692, when the Campbells slaughtered their hosts the MacDonalds at the Massacre of Glencoe. He first went to nearby Fort William, which at that time was a government military base. It was an act of official policy, conceived by a Secretary of State for Scotland, Dalrymple, and executed by a Scottish commander- in- chief, approved by the King, and carried out by a regiment in the British Army. Some believe that Archibald’s cousin, the Earl of Breadlebane encouraged the position that MacIain’s pledge was irregular given the opportunity it opened up for Clan Campbell to seek revenge on the MacDonalds. Dalrymple was not a fan of the Jacobite cause, Highland culture, or the MacDonalds themselves. Detail from James Hamilton's Massacre … See that this be putt in execution without feud or favour, else you may expect to be dealt with as one not true to King nor Government, nor a man fitt to carry Commissione in the Kings service. Scottish foods. You are to have special care that the old fox and his sons do upon no account escape your hands. History of Glencoe. An historical account of the massacre, in February 1692, of the small Clan MacDonald of Glencoe by Campbell of Glenlyon's troops under orders from the English Government. [26], In May, fears of a French invasion meant the Argylls were posted to Brentford in England, then Flanders. However, they serve to demonstrate how the Glencoe massacre has wormed its way into Scottish national consciousness. With this sanguinary order in his pocket, and with his mind made up unhesitatingly and rigorously to execute it, he did not hesitate to spend the evening of the massacre playing at cards with John and Alexander Macdonald, the sons of the chief, to wish them good night at parting, and to accept an invitation from Glencoe himself to dine with him the following day. [39] He sought to exonerate William from every charge made by Leslie, including the Massacre, which he claimed was part of a Campbell–MacDonald clan feud. However, the Governor at Fort William denied he had the requisite authority to accept the Oath. He was to spare none below the age of seventy. Sir Colin administered the Oath on 6 January, after which MacIain returned home. Public outcry led to a parliamentary commission which found events to be a “murder under trust” with Dalrymple then forced to resign. [32] It was first used in 1588 against Lachlan Maclean, whose objections to his mother's second marriage led him to murder his new stepfather, John MacDonald, and 18 members of the wedding party. The massacre was only one in a series of incidents deemed as such, including the Darien scheme, the famine of the late 1690s, and the Union of 1707. 'You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and to put all to the sword under seventy.' '[24] Recent estimates put total deaths resulting from the Massacre as 'around 30', while claims others died of exposure have not been substantiated. [21] On 12 February, Hill ordered Hamilton to take 400 men and block the northern exits from Glencoe at Kinlochleven. 'You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and to put all to the sword under seventy.' Noté /5. Instructing that the attack be carried out at 5am, the order added: “This is by the Kings special command, for the good & safety of the Country, that these miscreants be cutt off root and branch”. Glenlyon died in Bruges in August 1696, Duncanson was killed in Spain in May 1705, Drummond survived to take part in another famous Scottish disaster of the period, the Darien Scheme. Try Massacre at Glencoe. Mistakenly, he went to Fort William and then was sent on to Inverary, a Campbell stronghold three days away ,to pledge his allegiance to the King via the sheriff. The focus was William's alleged complicity in the 1672 death of Johan de Witt, with Glencoe and other crimes included as secondary charges. So while the massacre was carried out by … He argued lawlessness was deliberately encouraged by leaders like Glengarry, while ‘the midle sort of Gentrey and Commons....never got anything but hurt’ from it. 'You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and to put all to the sword under seventy.' Write a review. [6], After Killiecrankie, the Scottish government held a series of meetings with the Jacobite chiefs, offering terms that varied based on events in Ireland and Scotland. [11], As a result, MacIain of Glencoe only left for Fort William on 30 December to take the Oath from the governor, Lieutenant Colonel John Hill. In 1692, government troops, loyal to King William, killed 38 MacDonalds, after having accepted the hospitality of the men they would murder. Two rival dynasties vied for the throne in far off London; but the fighting, the repercussions and the bloodshed would be felt most in the heart of the Scottish Highlands. By May 1690, the Jacobite rising of 1689 was no longer a serious military threat but unrest continued in the remote Highlands; with William also engaged in the Nine Years War, the Scottish government was under pressure to end it. Start your review of The Massacre of Glencoe. [42] Glencoe became part of a focus on 'the emotional trappings of the Scottish past...bonnie Scotland of the bens and glens and misty shieling, the Jacobites, Mary, Queen of Scots, tartan mania and the raising of historical statuary. It was from around that time, that people started to refer to a new name for the nine of diamonds. He … [49] It was used as a subject by Thomas Campbell and George Gilfillan, whose main claim to modern literary fame is his sponsorship of William McGonagall, allegedly the worst poet in British history. [23], MacIain was killed, but his two sons escaped and the 1695 Commission was given various figures for total deaths. Nov 26, 2019 Susan Grimshaw rated it it was amazing. [25], In his letters of 30 January to Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton and Colonel Hill, Stair expresses concern the MacDonalds would escape if warned, and emphasises the need for secrecy. Le massacre débuta simultanément en trois endroits de Glen Coe  Invercoe, Inverrigan et Achacon  mais les meurtres s'étendirent à toute la vallée lors de la fuite des MacDonald. Written by Jim McLean and published by Duart Music, 1963, "Massacre Of Glencoe", "The Massacre Of Glencoe" or simply "Glencoe" is not the first song to be written about this infamous, shameful and senseless act of what would today be called ethnic cleansing in the Scottish Highlands. Rebel clan chiefs were called to a summit at the ruins of Achallader Castle in June 1691 with the Earl of Breadlebane, Lord Treasurer of Scotland, who was also a member of Clan Campbell, leading negotiations. In order to continue read the entire music sheet of The Massacre Of Glencoe Mort Ghlinne Comhainn you need to signup, download music sheet notes in pdf format also available for offline reading. Glencoe is a village located in the Scottish Highlands about 90 miles north of Glasgow. This massacre still resonates in the local conciousness today. Who Ordered the Massacre of Glencoe - He is known as the “Curse of Scotland” for his role in the Glencoe Massacre, the government minister whose exploits went largely unpunished following the infamous murders which took place 325 years ago this week. [31], A Commission was set up to determine whether there was a case to answer under 'Slaughter under trust', a 1587 law intended to reduce endemic feuding. The massacre was launched on February 13 1692 after the King ordered Captain Robert Campbell of Glen Lyon to attack his hosts and “put all to the sword under seventy”. The regiment remained here until the Nine Years' War ended in 1697; it was disbanded, and no action taken against those involved. Duncanson was two hours late, only joining Glenlyon at the southern end at 7:00 am, after which they advanced up the glen burning houses and removing livestock. He was to spare none below the age of seventy. [4], However, a continuing low level Scottish insurgency used resources William needed for the Nine Years' War. The Commission therefore focused on whether participants exceeded their orders, not their legality; it concluded Stair and Hamilton had a case to answer but left the decision to William. This is the original order sent to Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, instructing him to kill the MacDonalds of Glencoe. Today, the region is popular with outdoor enthusiasts who pursue such activities as hiking, climbing and skiing. The Massacre of Glencoe (Scottish Gaelic: Murt Ghlinne Comhann) took place in Glen Coe in the Highlands of Scotland on 13 February 1692. The massacre was launched on February 13 1692 after the King ordered Captain Robert Campbell of Glen Lyon to attack his hosts and “put all to the sword under seventy”. Who Ordered the Massacre of Glencoe - He is known as the “Curse of Scotland” for his role in the Glencoe Massacre, the government minister whose exploits went largely unpunished following the infamous murders which took place 325 years ago this week. Frustrated by this, the Secretary of State for Scotland, Lord Stair, decided to make an example to provide a warning of the consequences for further delay. '[29] The impetus behind an inquiry was political; as a former member of James' administration, who then became a supporter of the new regime, Stair was unpopular with both sides. The role of John Dalrymple, 1st Earl of Stair, a shrewd political operator who helped secure King William II and his wife Mary on the throne, went largely unpunished. In 1691, King William the Third, recognising the resurgence of the Jacobite cause, ordered all the clan chiefs to sign an oath of allegiance by 1st January 1692. It has been argued the Highlands were generally more peaceful than often suggested, in part because chiefs could be fined for crimes committed by their clansmen. As Captain of the Argylls' Grenadier company, Drummond was senior to Glenlyon; his presence appears to have been to ensure the orders were enforced, since witnesses gave evidence he shot two people who asked Glenlyon for mercy. You are to secure … Stair persuaded King William that the order was designed to root out a den of thieves in the Valley of Glencoe. Updated Wednesday, 1st March 2017, 9:55 am. 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